The Extravirgin Olive Oil Production

1. Harvest (from October to January)

The olives are harvested from October to January, five and eight months after flowering that
occurs around in May-June but the epoch of the collection varies in base to the variety of the olive
and factors related to the weather. The tendency to anticipate the collection is motivated by 2 reason, infact the anticipate harvest can determinate a better quality, and an olive oil more rich in fatty acids and antioxidants, and in this way diminish the risks of losing the harvest due to unfavorable conditions meteorologists.Additionally, delaying the harvest increases the acidity.
The harvest system influences the quality of extravirgin olive oil. There are different harvest systems:

harvested by hand which is obtained by beating the branches with sticks, so as to cause the fall of the fruits that are harvested one by one by hands the collection machine, which takes place through the use of harvesters

mechanical shaking the branches with less damage to the plant. The olives they fall on a network set up on the ground and then allows you to collect more quickly and with less effort. The shaking of the branch can not collect all the olives from the tree, the remaining olives have to be harvested by hand.

2. Transport to the mill

After being harvested, the olives are taken to the mill for the "milling". The transport and the conservation of the olives need to be done through plastic deposit boxes perforated for facilitate the air passage; are from avoid the boxes of timber or timber sacks in how much former are easily attacked by mold while the latter are easily crushed generating fermentation phenomena.

3. Olives Cleaning

This procedure will remove any solid particles such as leaves, stones,
ground with hydropneumatic washing water, in its circulation, deposit all debris transported; you has therefore the possibility of operate in the washing tub always with water clean. Ensuring clean water ensures high quality oil otherwise olive oil could take bitter flavors.
At the end of the operation the olives undergo drying for easy draining of water of washing.

4. Grinding

At this point the olives are ready for milling. The milling consists in the first extraction step proper. The olives are subjected to mechanical actions which cause the rupture of the cell wall an membranes with the consequent escape of the juices. The systems used are basically of two classical types. Milling, which involves the use of a millstones which exploits the mechanical action exerted by the rotation of one or more large stone wheels (generally in granite) on the mass in machining. Contrary to what one might expect, the escape of the juices is not caused by crushing, but by the action of rubbing the cutting edges of the fragments of stone on the pulp of olive. In the past it was used a single stone wheel propelled by means of an arm by a donkey or a horse. The second method, is the pressing.

5. Kneading

The kneading has precisely the purpose of separating the oil of olive from the water and facilitate the aggregation of the oil droplets. It is done in machines or said mullers kneading. The braking is essentially a steel tank in which helical blades that rotate, by rotating at a speed of 20-30 laps to the minute, maintain in slow remixing the olive paste (flotation).

6. Separation

The next step is pressing: the paste is put in metal punched cages, where it is crushed by a press capable of developing a pressure of 200-500 kg/cm2: the liquid that comes out from the holes is the oily juice, and the solids that remain are the residue. The last phase is the spin that is the separation of the oil must from the pomace, the solid fraction consists of fragments of stone, from the hulls and fragments of pulp . The oily must is placed in a centrifuge, which rotates faster away because of the different specific weights the water and solid particles (sludge) while the oil remains in the central part

7. Filtration

The oil just separated, except the one intended for the production of fruity, undergoes to filtration, and then is ready for packaging.






Libro degli ospiti al Frantoio Sorrento


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